Tentang Indonesia

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The Republic of Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world comprising 17,504 large and small tropical islands fringed with white sandy beaches, many still uninhabited and a number even still unnamed. Straddling the equator, situated between the continents of Asia and Australia and between the Pacific and the Indian Oceans, it is as wide as the United States from San Francisco to New York, equaling the distance between London and Moscow.  Indonesia has a total population of more than 215 million people from more than 200 ethnic groups. The national language is Bahasa Indonesia.

REGIONS

Among the most well known islands are Sumatra, Java, Bali, Kalimantan (formerly Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly Celebes), the Maluku Islands (or better known as Moluccas, the original Spice Islands) and Papua. Then, there is Bali “the world’s best island resort” with its enchanting culture, beaches, dynamic dances and music. But Indonesia still has many unexplored islands with grand mountain views, green rainforests to trek through, rolling waves to surf and deep blue pristine seas to dive in where one can swim with dugongs, dolphins and large mantarays.

Indonesia is blessed with the most diverse landscape, from fertile ricelands on Java and Bali to the luxuriant rainforests of Sumatra, Kalimantan and Sulawesi, to the savannah grasslands of the Nusatenggara islands to snow-capped peaks of West Papua.

HISTORY

Ever since prehistoric times the Indonesian archipelago has been inhabited. Java Man or pithecanthropus erectus (upright apeman) is the oldest known inhabitant here, having lived over a million years ago. Other more recent prehistoric species include the still disputed homo Floresiensis, or the Flores hobbits, dwarf people, who have also made these islands their home. From 1294 to the 15th century the powerful Majapahit Kingdom in East Java held suzerainty over a large part of this archipelago. Meanwhile, small and large sultanates thrived on many islands of the archipelago, from Sumatra to Java and Bali, to Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Ternate and the Moluccas.

Throughout history, traders have brought the world’s large religions of Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam to this archipelago, deeply influencing this country’s culture and way of life. Yet Indonesia was never conquered by India nor China, until Europeans came and colonized these islands. Revolt against the colonizers soon built up throughout the country, and finally, on 17 August 1945, after the defeat of the Japanese in the Second World War, the Indonesian people declared their Independence through their leaders Soekarno and Hatta.

LANGUAGE

Bahasa Indonesia is the national and official language in the entire country. It is the language of official communication, taught in schools and spoken on television. Most Indonesians today speak at least two languages or more, Bahasa Indonesia and their local language, of which Indonesia counts more than 300 regional languages.

CLIMATE

Being a tropical country, Indonesia is blessed with two seasons, namely dry and rainy. Dry usually occurs from June to September and the rest is rainy season. Sunshine is abundant except in rainy season when the sky tends to be cloudy. It is advisable to visit Indonesia during dry season.

PEOPLE AND CULTURE

Living on more than 17,000 islands, the Indonesian nation today counts some 200 million population comprising more than 200 ethnic groups. The majority of the population embraces Islam, while in Bali the Hindu religion is predominant. Whereas in areas like the Minahasa in North Sulawesi, the Toraja highlands in South Sulawesi, in the East Nusatenggara islands and in large parts of Papua, in the Batak highlands as well as on Nias island in North Sumatra, the majority are either Catholics or Protestants.

The Indonesian archipelago harbours many ancient cultures that are rooted here, while throughout its history through centuries until today the islands have been influenced by Indian, Chinese, Arabic and European cultures, and lately also by the global popular culture, international travel and internet. Foreign cultures and traditions, however, are absorbed and assimilated by the people producing unique “Indonesian” creations found nowhere else in the world.

On 2 October 2009, UNESCO recognized Indonesia’s “Batik” as World Intangible Cultural Heritage, adding to the earlier recognized Indonesia’s “Keris” (the wavy blade dagger), and the “Wayang” shadow puppets. Further being considered as World Heritage is the “Angklung” bamboo musical instrument from West Java, being uniquely “Indonesian”.

Hubungan diplomatik Indonesia-Jepang didasarkan pada perjanjian Perdamaian antara Republik Indonesia dan Jepang pada bulan April 1958. Sejak itu hubungan bilateral antara kedua negara berlangsung baik, akrab dan terus berkembang tanpa mengalami hambatan berarti, bahkan kini sedang berada pada taraf ‘mitra strategis’ (strategic partnership), menyusul kesepakatan “the Strategic Partnership for Peaceful and Prosperous Future” pada tahun 2006 dan Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement (IJEPA) pada tahun 2007.

Eratnya hubungan bilateral kedua negara tersebut juga tercermin dalam berbagai persetujuan yang ditandatangani maupun pertukaran nota oleh kedua pemerintah untuk memberikan landasan lebih kuat bagi kerjasama di berbagai bidang. Intensitas kunjungan timbal balik di antara pemimpin dan pejabat tinggi kedua negara cukup tinggi.

PM Yoshihiko Noda shakes hands with President Susilo Bambang before group photo at the Japan-ASEAN Summit Meeting 2011 in Bali

President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and President Lee Myung-bak (South Korea) in the Retreat Session of APEC Summit 2010 in Yokohama

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Pada tingkat kepala negara, tercatat kunjungan Presiden RI ke Jepang pada bulan Juni 2005 dan November 2006, kunjungan dalam rangka menghadiri pertemuan G8 di Hokkaido pada tahun 2008, kunjungan dalam rangka KTT APEC Economic Leaders Meeting pada tahun 2010 serta kunjungan kerja pada 16-18 Juni 2011. Disamping itu, Wakil Presiden RI juga melakukan kunjungan ke Jepang pada 14-17 November 2011. Sementara Perdana Menteri Jepang tercatat melakukan kunjungan ke Indonesia pada tahun 2005 (PM Junichiro Koizumi), 2007 (PM Shinzo Abe), 2009 (Yukio Hatoyama), dan 2011 (Yoshihiko Noda).

Dalam kunjungan kerjanya ke Jepang pada bulan Juni 2011 tersebut, Presiden RI mencapai kesepakatan dengan PM Jepang untuk menindaklanjuti kemitraan strategis yang telah terjalin melalui pertemuan reguler tingkat Menlu, Menteri Ekonomi dan Menteri Pertahanan serta dialog polkam di tingkat Dirjen.

Vice President Boediono speaks before Indonesians living in Tokyo, after attending the APEC Summit 2010.

Pada tanggal 1 November 2011, telah dilaksanakan 1st Politico-Military dan 4th Military-Military Talk, yaitu dialog polkam tingkat Dirjen (dari Kemlu dan Kemhan) pertama, yang merupakan perintis untuk pertemuan rutin two-plus-two (political-military talks) tingkat menteri kedua negara. Jika pertemuan two-plus-two ini terlaksana, maka Indonesia akan menjadi negara pertama yang mempunyai dialog rutin tingkat menteri disemua sektor (ekonomi, politik dan keamanan) dengan Jepang.

Antara kedua negara juga terjalin kerjasama erat sebagai sesama anggota organisasi/forum regional dan internasional seperti PBB, ESCAP, APEC, WTO dan ASEM. Dalam kerangka kerjasama regional ASEAN, Jepang merupakan salah satu mitra dialog utama dan anggota ARF.

Indonesian Minister for Foreign Affairs, Marty Natalegawa, talks about the bilateral relations between Japan-Indonesia and regional dynamics at the Japan National Press Club during his working visit to Japan in February 2011.

Kerjasama Ekonomi, Perdagangan dan Investasi
Jepang merupakan mitra dagang utama Indonesia yang berada di urutan pertama sebagai negara tujuan ekspor dan sebagai sumber impor dengan total nilai perdagangan sampai dengan bulan Desember 2007 sebesar US$30 milyar meningkat dibandingkan periode yang sama tahun 2006 senilai US$ 27 milyar. Pada periode 2007, Indonesia mendapatkan surplus US$17 milyar. Sementara itu untuk tahun 2008 periode Januari-September, nilai perdagangan Indonesia-Jepang senilai US$ 32,8 milyar, dengan ekspor Indonesia senilai US$ 21,8 milyar, impor Indonesia senilai US$ 11 milyar dan Indonesia mendapatkan surplus sebesar US$ 10,87 milyar.

Minister Mari Pangestu and Minister Yukio Edano agrees on Japan-Indonesia cooperation for creative economy on the sidelines of Japan-Indonesia Joint Economic Forum 2012

Terdapatnya pengakuan dari pihak Jepang bahwa investasi Jepang di kawasan Asia Tenggara, utamanya Indonesia mengalami peningkatan yang cukup signifikan. Indonesia dipandang menjadi pendorong utama bagi peningkatan investasi di kawasan Asia Tenggara. Berdasarkan survey peringkat tujuan investasi yang diadakan JBIC, Indonesia menempati peringkat ke 8 (delapan) pada tahun 2007.

The 4th Indonesia – Japan Joint Economic Forum (IJJEF) in Tokyo , 8-9 October 2012

Menarik untuk diperhatikan bahwa investasi dilakukan oleh perusahaan Jepang berada pada sektor usaha kecil dan menengah. Di samping itu, investasi yang masuk belakangan ini bukan merupakan investasi baru, melainkan ekspansi perusahaan-perusahaan Jepang yang sudah beroperasi sebelumnya. Beberapa kendala yang menjadi perhatian kalangan dunia usaha Jepang dalam melakukan investasi di Indonesia adalah iklim investasi yang belum kondusif, masalah keamanan, perburuhan, kepastian hukum dan perkembangan pelaksanaan otonomi daerah. Selain besarnya pasar Indonesia, Indonesia juga mempunyai daya tarik lain untuk tujuan investasi Jepang, antara lain: ketersediaan tenaga kerja yang banyak, rajin dan cepat dalam penguasaan teknologi; serta Indonesia dianggap negara yang paling ramah terhadap Jepang dibanding dengan negara lain di Asia.

(sumber: berbagai sumber/KBRI Tokyo)

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